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> Biomedical & Life Sciences, Author(s) Anatole A. Klyosov, Giancarlo T. Tomezzoli
сообщение 18.5.2013, 10:45
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DNA Genealogy and Linguistics. Ancient Europe


This article attempts to merge the data of contemporary linguistics and DNA genealogy in order to describe the migrations and settlement of peoples and languages in Europe after the last Ice Age. In the new paradigm, three important groups of players have been identified: —R1ahaplogroup bearers, conditionally identified as Aryans. They arose around 20,000 years before the present (ybp) in central Asia and the Altai Mountains; after their migration along the southern route, they arrived inEuropebetween 10,000 - 9000 ybp, bringing proto-Indo European (PIE) and Indo European (IE) languages. In 4800 ybp they migrated eastward from Europe to the Russian Plane and then to India. About 3000 - 2500 ybp they migrated with their IE languages from the Russian Plain back to central, western, and southern Europe, laying the genetic groundwork for peoples later called Celts, Germans, Italics, Greeks, Illyrians, and Balto-Slavs. —E, F, G, J, I, K haplogroup bearers. The dates of their arrival in Europe (sometime before 5000 ybp) and their migration routes remain obscure. They apparently spoke non-IE languages. —R1b haplogroup bearers, called the Arbins. They arose about 16,000 ybp in central Asia, and migrated toEuropealong a northern route. They arrived inEuropebetween 4800 and 4500 ybp bringing with them several non-IE languages. It seems that the arrival of the Aryans (R1a) inEuropewas peaceful. There are no clear indications that their arrival triggered any sort of violence. However, the migration of the Arbins (R1b) was marked by an almost complete elimination of the E1b, F, G2a, J, I1, I2, and K haplogroups fromEurope. Our analysis of current linguistic theories in the light of DNA genealogy data demonstrates that: —the Anatolian theory is generally compatible with DNA genealogy data; —the Vasconic and Afro-asiatic substratum theory is partially in agreement with DNA genealogy data; —the Kurgan theory and the Palaeolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) appear incompatible with the history of Europe based on haplogroup data. —the “Out of Africa” theory has questionable validity.
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