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> R: R1a R1b R2 - сходства и различия, происхождение, прародина, миграции
Valikhan
сообщение 11.2.2010, 12:00
Сообщение #401


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Там же по остальным основным европейским гаплогруппам.

Haplogroup I (Y-DNA)
I is the oldest haplogroup in Europe and in all probability the only one that originated there (apart from deep subclades of other haplogroups). It is thought to have arrived from the Middle East as haplogroup IJ around 35,000 years ago, and developed into haplogroup I approximately 25,000 years ago. This means that Cro-Magnons most probably belonged (exclusively ?) to IJ or I. Nowadays haplogroup I accounts for 10 to 45% of the population in most of Europe. It is divided in four main subclades.
The megalithic structures (5000-1200 BCE) of Europe were built by I people.

Haplogroup I1 (formerly I1a) is the most common I subclade. It is found mostly in Scandinavia and Northern Germany, where it can represent over 35% of the population. Associated with the Norse ethnicity, it is found in all places invaded by the ancient Germanic tribes and the Vikings.

During the Neolithic period, pre-I1 and I1 people were part of the sucessive Ertebølle culture (5300-3950 BCE) and Funnelbeaker culture (4000-2700 BCE). The Corded Ware period (3200-1800 BCE) marks the arrival of the Indo-European R1a people from the Ukrainian steppes.

I1 is identified by at least 15 unique mutations, which indicates that this lineage has been isolated for a long period of time, or experienced a serious population bottleneck. Although the first mutation splitting I1 away from I2 may have arisen as long as 20,000 years ago, people belonging to this haplogroup all descend from a single man who lived less than 5,000 years ago. This corresponds to the arrival of the Indo-European, suggesting that a high percentage of the indigenous I1 men could possibly have been killed by the new immigrants.

Distribution of haplogroup I1 in Europe


Haplogroup I2 might have originated in southeastern Europe some 17,000 years ago and developed into four main subgroups : I2a1, I2a2, I2b1 and I2b2.

I2a1 (formerly I1b2) is found chiefly among the Sardinians and the Basques, and is rarely found outside Iberia, Western France, the West coast of Italy and the Mediterranean coast of the Maghreb. It accounts for approximately 40% of all Y-DNA haplogroups among the Sardinians. I2a1 is estimated to be 8,000 years old.

I2a2 (formerly I1b) is typical of the Dinaric Slavs (Croats, Serbs and Bosniaks). Its highest density is observed around ex-Yugoslavia and Moldova, but it is also common to a lower extent in Albania, Northern Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Belarus, and southwestern Russia. The high concentratio of I2a2 in north-east Romania, Moldova and central Ukraine reminds of the maximum spread of the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture before it was swallowed by the Indo-European Corded Ware culture. This could mean that the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture was a native European group of hunter-gatherers who adopted farming after coming in contact (with perhaps some intermarriages) with the Levantine farmers who settled in the Balkans (haplogroups E-V13, J2b and T).

The modern territory of I2a1 and I2a2 (Illyria, Italy, Sardinia, Mediterranean coast of France and Spain) matches the extent of the Neolithic Printed-Cardium Pottery culture (5000-1500 BCE), that is believed to have started with the arrival of E-V13 and G2a farmers and herders from Thessaly (northern Greece). It was followed by the Terramare culture (1500-1000 BCE) in the Bronze Age. The R1b Celto-Italic people are thought to have crossed the Alps and invaded the Italian peninsula around 1,000 BCE, replacing most of the indigenous I2a, G2a and E-V13 people (especially in the northern half).

I2b (formerly I1c) is associated with the pre Celto-Germanic people of North-Western Europe, such as the megaliths builders (5000-1200 BCE). The wide variety of STR markers within I2b could make it as much as 13,000 years old.

I2b is found in all Western Europe, but apparently survived better the Indo-European invasions (=> see R1b above) in northern Germany, and was reintroduced by the Germanic invasions during the late Roman period. Nowadays, I2b peaks in central and northern Germany (10-20%), the Benelux (10-15%) as well as in northern Sweden. It is also found in 3 to 10% of the inhabitants of Denmark, East England, and Northern France. It is rare in Norway, which concords with the fact that it hasn't been invaded by people from northern Germany.

There are two major subclades : I2b1 (M223+) and I2b2 (L38/S154+), further subdivided in at least 4 subclades each, although little is known about them yet. The subclade I2b1a (M284+) occurs almost exclusively in Britain, where it seemingly developed about 3,000 years ago.

Near-Eastern haplogroups

Haplogroup J (Y-DNA)
J is a Middle Eastern haplogroup, divided into the northern J2 and the southern J1. J2 is by far the most common variety in Europe.

J2 originated in northern Mesopotamia, and spread westward to Anatolia and southern Europe, and eastward to Persia and India. J2 is related to the Ancient Etruscans, (Minoan) Greeks, southern Anatolians, Phoenicians, Assyrians and Babylonians.

In Europe, J2 reaches its highest frequency in Greece (especially in Crete, Peloponese and Thrace), southern and central Italy, southern France, and southern Spain. The ancient Greeks and Phoenicians were the main driving forces behind the spread J2 around the western and southern Mediterranean.

J2 is thought to have arrived in Greece from Anatolia in the early Neolithic, or possibly even earlier. J2b perhaps originated in Greece (or in Anatolia ?), like haplogroup E-V13 (see below) to which it is closely linked. The propagation of J2b and E-V13 (as well as a minority of T) follows the diffusion of agriculture across the Balkans, the Danube basin, and until the north of France to the west, and Moldova to the east. Apart from south-east Europe, J2b is also found all around India, but only at moderate levels in between Europe and India.

The world's maximum concentrations of J2a is in Crete (32% of the population). The subclade J2a8 appears to be native to Crete. J2a also reaches high frequencies in Anatolia and the southern Caucasus. A likely place of origin is northern Mesopotamia.

Interestingly, J2a* is found as far as India and is largely confined to the upper castes. The Brahmin (priest) caste is made up almost exclusively of haplogroups R1a1, R2, and J2a (although R1a1 makes up two thirds of the lineages). These 3 haplogroups have Bronze Age coalescence time and are thought to represent the gene flow of the Indo-Aryan invasion of the Indian subcontinent about 3,500 years ago.

J1 is a typically Semitic haplogroup, making up most of the population of the Arabian peninsula. Its highest density is observed in Yemen (72%), which could be its native place. The Muslim conquest of the Middle East, North Africa, and to a lower extent also to Sicily and southern Spain, spread J1 far beyond Arabia, creating a new Arabic world.

A considerable part of Jewish people belong to J1 and J2, although J2 is more common. J1 is the Cohen Modal Haplotype, meaning that about three quarters of the people called Cohen, Kohen, or a variant belong to a specific J1 haplotype. In the Hebrew Bible the common ancestor of all Cohens is identified as Aaron, the brother of Moses.




Haplogroup E1b1b (Y-DNA)
Haplogroup E1b1b (formerly E3b) represents the last major migration out of Africa into Europe. It is believed to have first appeared in the Horn of Africa or southern Africa approximately 26,000 years ago and dispersed to the Middle East during the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods.

On the European continent it has the highest concentration in north-west Greece, Albania and Kosovo, then fading around the Balkans, the rest of Greece and Western Turkey. Outside Europe, it is also found in most of the Middle East, northern and eastern Africa, especially in Morocco, Lybia, Egypt Yemen, Somalia, Ethiopia and South Africa.

The vast majority of Europeans and Near Easterners belong to E1b1b1a (or E-M78, formerly E3b1a). E-M78 is thought to migrated out of Egypt in the early Neolithic to colonise the Levant, Anatolia and Greece, where it mixed with the J2 inhabitants. E-M78 then evolved into 4 main branches : E1b1b1a1 (E-V12), E1b1b1a2 (E-V13), E1b1b1a3 (E-V22) and E1b1b1a4 (E-V65), each further subdivided in "a" and "b" subclades.

E-M78 from the Near East settled in northern Greece circa 8,500 years ago, launching the Thessalian Neolithic (6500-2500 BCE). E-V13 could have originated in Thessaly around 8,000 years ago, before expanding towards the Balkans. In the following millennia, the expansion of E-V13 correlates with the spread of Linear Pottery culture (5500-4500 BCE) from the Balkans to Central Europe and Germany. Owing to this early introduction to Europe, E-V13 is now by far the most common E subclade found among Europeans.

E-V13 is also associated with the ancient Greek expansion and colonisation. Outside of the Balkans and Central Europe, it is particularly common in Southern Italy, Cyprus and Southern France, all part of the Classcial ancient Greek world.

E-V22 is the predominant subclade in the Levant and is therefore associated with the Phoenicians and Jews. It is also common in Egypt, where it might have originated. The Phoenicians spread E-V22 to Sicily, Sardinia, southern Spain and the Maghreb, and the Jews to Spain and Italy. Approximately half of Spanish and Italian E are V-22 (Jewish-Phoenician), and the other half V-13 (Greek).

E-V12 is the most common subclade of M78 in Egypt. Its low presence around Greece and Anatolia indicates that it probably already existed when E moved there in the early Neolithic.

E-V65 is found in North Africa, with a maximum frequency in Lybia, then Morocco. It is also likely to have originated in Egypt. In Europe it is found at low frequencies in Greece and Sicily, but interestingly makes up one fourth of Sardinian E. It could be due to immigration from the Phoenician colonies in the Maghreb to Sardinia (the Sardinian haplogroup I2a1 is also present at low frequencies along the coast of Algeria and Tunisia, confirming exchanges of population between the two regions, maybe when both were Phoenician colonies).

E1b1b1b (E-M81, formerly E3b1b) is characteristic of the Berbers of North-West Africa. In some parts of Morocco E1b1b1b can peak at 80% of the population. This sub-hapolgroup is also found in Iberia, Italy and southern France, with the highest concentrations in southern Portugal (12%) and decreasing as we move north.

Expansion of haplogroup E from Africa to Europe from the pre-Neolithic to the Phoenician colonization (9500-800 BCE)



Haplogroup G (Y-DNA)
G has its roots in around the Caucasus. It is found mostly in mountainous regions between the Near East and India (Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan, Kashmir), but also in Central Asia (Kazakhstan), Europe and North Africa.

Most Europeans belong to the G2a subclade, and most northern and western Europeans more specifically to G2a3b (or to a lower extend G2a3a). About all G2c Europeans are Ashkenazi Jews. The discovery of G2c subclades around Afghanistan indicates that it could have originated in that part of the world. G1 is found predominantly in Iran, but is also found in Central Asia (Kazakhstan). A famous members of haplogroup G was Joseph Stalin (G2a1), who was of Georgian origin.

G2a makes up 5 to 10% of the population of Mediterranean Europe, but is fairly rare in Northern Europe. The only places where haplogroup G2 exceeds 10% of the population in Europe are Cantabria, Switzerland, the Tyrol, south-central Italy (Molise, Central and Southern Apennine), Sardinia, northern Greece (Thessaly) and Crete - all mountainous and relatively isolated regions.

There are several theories regarding the origin of G2a in Europe. There are doubtlessly cumulative rather than exclusive.

Neolithic mountain herders

Chronologically, the first hypothesis is the advance of Neolithic farmers and herders from Anatolia to Europe between 9,000 and 6,000 years ago. In this scenario the Caucasian migrants would have brought with them sheep and goats, which were domesticated south of the Caucasus arbout 12,000 years ago. This would explain why haplogroup G is more common in mountainous areas, be it in Europe or in Asia.

The geographic continuity of G2a from Anatolia to Thessaly to the Italian peninsula, Sardinia, south-central France and Iberia suggests that G2a could be connected to the Printed-Cardium Pottery culture (5000-1500 BCE).

Metal workers of the Indo-Europeans

Haplogroup G2a has also been linked to the spread of metalworking from the Caucasus or Anatolia to places like Sardinia or the Alps. If the Indo-European homeland of R1b1b was indeed in northern Anatolia and/or the North Caucasus, some Caucasian G2a could well have travelled to Europe alongside R1b1b2. The Caucasus being one of the very first places in the world where metallurgy developed, the expertise of Caucasian copper and tin workers could have been valuable to Indo-European warlords.

Early central and western European bronze age societies did develop around metal-rich regions, such as Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, Brittany, northern Spain, Portugal, and of course the Alps. Many of these regions have surprisingly high levels of G2a - for instance North Portugal (12%), Cantabria (over 10%), Asturias and Galicia (5%) in northern Spain, Switzerland (10%), Austria (8%) and the mountains of Bohemia (5 to 10%), and Wales (4%). This is much more than can be expected from the distance from its source in the Caucasus. The average for Anatolia is only of 11%. Furthermore, the Balkans and Carpathians standing in between Anatolia and the Alps have a remarkably low percentage of G2a (0 to 2%). G2a is the only haplogroup from the Middle-East or Eurasian steppe that does not have a substantial presence anywhere in Eastern Europe. G2a migrants must therefore have moved directly from Anatolia or the Caucasus to central and western Europe, in all likelihood invited by Indo-European rulers. G2a may also have come to Greece and Italy only after the Indo-Europeans took control of these regions.

A Neolithic or Bronze-Age introduction of G to Europe would undeniably correspond to G2a3 and its most common subclade G2a3b1, by far the most common forms of G in Europe. G2a3b1 is also found in India, at low frequencies like R1b1b, proving the Indo-European beyond reasonable doubt. The age of G2a3b has been estimated to be about 4,500 years old, which is far too young for a Neolithic spread, but just right for the Bronze Age.

=> See also Metal-mining and stockbreeding explain R1b dominance in Atlantic fringe

Distribution of haplogroup G2a in Europe


Roman redistribution

It is most likely that G2a arrived in Europe during the Neolithic or the Bronze Age and that the Romans helped spread it around, the whole of Italy being relatively rich in G2a. Migrations within the Roman Empire probably contributed to a moderate increase of G2a northward to Gaul and Britain, Indeed, the frequency of haplogroup G decreases with the distance from the boundaries of the Roman Empire. Haplogroup G is extremely rare Nordic and Baltic countries nowadays, despite the fact that agriculture reached those regions around the same time as Britain or Ireland. This may just be a coincidence, because the forested lowlands of northern Germany, Poland and northern Europe happen to be poor in metals and would not have attracted Bronze-Age workers from the Caucasus. North-East Europe also has a fairly modest frequency of R1b, which further reinforces the correlation between the two haplogroups.

Alanic G2a1

The only ethnic group that has a majority of haplogroup G nowadays are the Ossetians in the Caucasus, in the modern Russian Republic of North Ossetia-Alania. They are thought to descend directly from the Alans, a Central Asian tribe related to the ancient Samartians. The medieval Kingdom of Alania was located in the northern Caucasus, in present-day Georgia and Ossetia.

G2a has been observed at a slightly higher frequencies in Picardy and Flanders than in surrounding regions. It has been hypothetised that G2a was brought to northern France and Belgium by the Alans, who traversed all continental Europe during the barbarian invasions in the 5th century and founded a short-lived kingdom in northern France.

Nonetheless, if there is Alanic G in Europe it must certainly belong to other subclades than those from the Neolithic or Bronze Age period (namely G2a3). G2a1 being the most common variety in the Caucasus nowadays, the fairly recent Alanic migration (from a genetic point of view) could have carried that particular subclade. In fact, G2a1 has been found all along the Alanic migration route (Hungary, France, Spain), as well as in Britain (Samartian element ?), but hardly anywhere else.

Scythian G1

Romans were known to recruit Scythian or Sarmatian horsemen in their legions. According to C. Scott Littleton in his book From Scythia to Camelot, several Knights of the Round Table were of Scythian origin, and the the legend of Holy Grail itself originated in ancient Scythia. This hypothesis was also taken up in the 2004 movie King Arthur, which opens with the arrival of Scytho-Roman cavalry in Britain. However, Scythians were steppe people more likely to belong to haplogroup R1a. If any of them did belong to G, they presumably were G1, not G2a. This would explain the scattered cases of G1 in north-western Europe though. G2a2, which also been found in Britain and Anatolia, is another potential candidate.


Haplogroup T (Y-DNA)
T is a rare haplogroup in Europe (less than 1% of the population). It originated around the Red Sea (maybe in Ethiopia) at least 30,000 years ago, making it one of the oldest haplogroups found in Eurasia. It is most common in north-east Africa and the west coast of the Arabian peninsula, where it accounts for approximately 5 to 8% of the male lineages. Besides these regions and Europe, T is found as far as southern India, Russia, Tanzania and Cameroon. Its highest density is actually found among the Fulbe people of Cameroon (18% of the population).

Within Europe there are a few pockets with surprisingly high densities of haplogroup T, like the town of Sciacca in Sicily (18%), on the Spanish island of Ibiza (17%) or Serbia (7%). The populations of Italy, Portugal, Greece, and (oddly enough) Estonia, all have between 3 and 4% of haplogroup T.

The spread of haplogroup T in Europe is closely linked to the expansion of E1b1b from Egypt and the Near East to the Balkans and Danube basin. Its presence around the Mediterranean can be attributed to the Phoenicians colonisation (1200-800 BCE). The pocket in Estonia might be due to a founder effect in the region's Jewish population. Among famous people, Thomas Jefferson belonged to haplogroup T.

Other haplogroups found in Europe

Haplogroup N (Y-DNA)
N is found among Uralic speakers, from Finland to Siberia, and at minor frequencies as far as Korea and Japan. In Europe, haplogroup N is only found at high frequencies among modern Finns (58%), Lithuanians (42%), Latvians (38%), Estonians (34%) and northern Russians.

Haplogroup N is believed to have originated in Southeast Asia approximately 15,000 to 20,000 years ago, but the N1c1 subclade found in Europe likely arose in Southern Siberia circa 12,000 years ago, and spread to North-East Europe 10,000 years ago.

Haplogroup N is associated with the Kunda culture (8000-5000 BCE) and the Comb Ceramic culture (4200-2000 BCE), which evolved into Finnic and pre-Baltic people.The Indo-European Corded Ware culture (3200-1800 BCE) progressively took over the Baltic region and southern Finland from 2,500 BCE. The merger of the two gave rise to the hybrid Kiukainen culture (2300-1500 BCE). Modern Baltic people have a roughly equal proportion of haplogroup N1c1 and R1a, resulting from this merger of Uralic and Slavic cultures.


Haplogroup Q (Y-DNA)
Q is found predominantly in Central Siberia, Central Asia and among Native Americans. In the latter case it is the specific subclade Q1a3a.

One hypothesis is that Q came to Europe with the Huns in the 5th century. The Huns are thought to have originated from Central Siberia, where haplogroup Q is still common nowadays. Q is found in 2% of the people in Hungary and up to 5% in isolated pockets in the mountains of Slovakia, just north of Hungary. It is historically attested that Hungary was were most of the Hunnic invaders finally settled after wreaking havoc around Europe. The Nordic and Baltic states have the second highest frequency of Q in Europe. Based on the Hunnic hypothesis, it is possible that a group of Huns settled in Sweden and/or Norway along with their allies, the Goths. The Romans reported that the Huns consisted of a small ruling elite and their armies comprised mostly of Germanic warriors. An alternative scenario is that Nordic and Baltic Q came through the Uralic-speaking population of Siberia via Finland and Lappland, but this is unlikely because Q is not more common in Finland and does not correlate with the densities of the Uralic haplogroup N1c1.

Other Central Asian or Siberian migrations might have brought Q to Ukraine in the late Antiquity or Medieval period. For instance, the multi-ethnic Central Asian troops of Genghis Khan could very well have carried some haplogroup Q (along with C, G, O and R1a) to Eastern Europe, but not to Central Europe or Scandinavia.


Haplogroup C (Y-DNA)
Haplogroup C3 in Europe is most likely of Mongol origin. It is found everywhere at various concentrations in Genghis Khan's former empire, although only sporadically on the European continent. Other subclades of C come from ethnic groups too remote from Europe (Aboriginal Australians, Polynesians, South-East Asians) to be found among Europeans (apart from recent immigration).


Haplogroup P (Y-DNA)
P is the parent group of Q and R (including R1a and R1b). It has almost disappeared nowadays, except around its place of origins in Central Asia. It is very rarely found in Europe. It may have been brought to Europe by Central Asian invaders, like the Huns or the Mongols.


Haplogroup L (Y-DNA)
L is found mostly in the Indian subcontinent, but also at lower frequencies in Central Asia, Southwest Asia, and Southern Europe along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (notably in Italy). L1 is typical of the Dravidian people of South India. Various subclades are found in Europe (L1, L2, L3) without any real geographic pattern. Europeans belonging to haplogroup L are likely to be descended from Indian (L1, L3) or Persian (L2, L3) merchants in ancient times, maybe at the time of the Roman Empire.


Haplogroup H (Y-DNA)
Gypsies belong predominantly (about 50%) to haplogroup H1a. Haplogroup H is not otherwise found in Europe, but on the Indian subcontinent.

Haplogroup A (Y-DNA)
A is the oldest of all Y-DNA haplogroups and the closest to the Y-chromosomal Adam. It originated in Africa over 70,000 years ago, most likely in the south-west, around modern Angola and Namibia. Modern populations with the highest percentages of haplogroup A are the Khoisan (such as the Bushmen) and the southern Sudanese. Isolated cases of individuals belonging to haplogroup A have been found in Western Europe (notably Ireland, Britain and Germany). It is believed that these people descend in direct paternal line from Nubians who probably came to Europe during the Roman period, probably as slaves (Nubian gladiators were popular in Rome). It is unlikely that they descend from slaves from the Atlantic slave trade (17th and 18th century) since these came from a part of Africa where A is very rare.



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Рекуай
сообщение 17.5.2018, 21:34
Сообщение #402


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Цитата(Dogon @ 27.1.2010, 12:37) *
Цитата(aklyosov @ 10.1.2010, 20:06) *
Повторяю вопрос - и что Вас в этом таки удивляет?


Ну, я вообще как-то ожидал, что у бурушо как вероятного реликта по языку будет преобладать какая-нибудь типичная для Южной Азии гаплогруппа (R2, L или H), а оказался хитрый микс. В этом удивительность. Вон у реликтовых по языку басков ведь преобладает R1b, а здесь такой контраст. :)
У буришей R1a Z93 явная приблуда, при чём довольно таки поздняя. Арии попали в Северную Индию примерно 3700 лет назад.
Задолго до этого в Индию попали R2. ветвиться они начали 16 000 лет назад.
При чём В Индии большой отстойник, из неё наверное никто не выселялся, только подселялись.

Не исключено, что и буриши также пришли с севера. Колебания климата, точнее потепление и связанное с этим расширение пустынь, выталкивали из зоны бедствия массы народу.
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