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> R: R1a R1b R2 - сходства и различия, происхождение, прародина, миграции
_Urkoveц_*
сообщение 7.1.2010, 21:06
Сообщение #381





Гости






Конечно. В новом варианте я несколько (градусов на 180) изменил подход.
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Dogon
сообщение 7.1.2010, 22:55
Сообщение #382


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Цитата(aklyosov @ 7.1.2010, 20:54) *
То, что арийский язык присущ R1a1, по крайней мере 4000 лет назад, это понятно. ГДЕ ДАННЫЕ, что R1a1 получили его от кого-то другого? Когда?


Если арии по вашей терминологии - это только род R1a1, то что такое арийский язык? Исходя из этого:

Цитата(aklyosov @ 7.1.2010, 14:16) *
Замечание совершенно неумное. Как будут отличать "митаннийских ариев" от других? По костям? Далее, Вы опять неисправимо путаете языковое понятие (ИЕ) с гаплогруппами. На британских островах ныне - индоевропейцы, и причем там гаплогруппа R1a1?

Почему R1a1 должны "покрывать" всех "ИЕ"? Всегда была и есть метисация. Просто по ситуации она или малозначима, или средняя, или значительная. И о ситуации мы заключаем только по последствиям.


Вас тогда вообще не должна интересовать индоевропейская семья языков, потому что это не арийские языки, ибо не все они связаны с ариями, родом R1a1. Арийский язык вообще не имеет отношения к генетической классификации языков мира. Если у киргизов много R1a1, то их язык тоже арийский, а ирландский язык тогда совсем не арийский. Арии - это совсем другая плоскость, никакого отношения к языкам не имеющая. То, что R1a1 есть у индоариев и славян - это просто случайность. Обобщать на языковую семью в целом никак нельзя. Нету корреляции с семьёй. Так что, на анатолийскую прародину вы рано забили. Например, J2 тоже могут быть носителями праиндоевропейского - есть и в Албании, и в Индии. Логика абсолютно такая же как с R1a1 у индоариев и славян. А время жизни общего предка ничего само по себе не решает, ибо древние гаплотипы могут мигрировать позднее - например, английские гаплотипы в США. dry.gif
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aklyosov
сообщение 8.1.2010, 1:01
Сообщение #383


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Уважаемый Dogon, Вы сколько уже времени на этом сайте, но так ничего и не поняли.

Повторяю медленно и в который раз. Но я терпеливый:

Цитата(Dogon @ 7.1.2010, 14:55) *
Если арии по вашей терминологии - это только род R1a1, то что такое арийский язык?


Арии - это род, который под именем ариев пришел в Индию (для простоты ограничимся Индией). Значит, это и есть род R1a1. Арийский язык - это язык, на котором разговаривали арии, стало быть, это язык рода R1a1.

Примерно 6 тысяч лет назад род R1a1 стал расходиться с Балкан (примем, что это были Балканы, на то есть ряд оснований), разнося по Европе свой арийский язык. По ряду причин, которые я обсуждал в последней статье в Вестнике, на этом (арийском) языке заговорили и другие европейские гаплогруппы, и говорят на арийских языках (естественно, динамически изменившихся) и в настоящее время. Поэтому арийские языки в Европе - вовсе не обязательно гаплогруппа R1a1.

Примерно 5000 лет назад носители гаплогруппы R1a1 вышли на Русскую равнину, и разнесли этот язык от Прибалтики (Литва) до Кавказа (Армения), прошли на восток, и примерно 3500 лет назад прибыли в Индию. Этим они замкнули языковую связку между Европой и Индией, отсюда и название - "индоевропейские языки".

Понятно теперь?

По ходу своего движения они вышли на Кавказ 4500 лет назад и примерно 3800-3600 лет назад его перевалили, выйдя в Анатолию. Там и хетты, и митанни, и прочие. Так арийский язык туда пришел. Лингвисты уже в наши времена его там обнаружили, и по какой-то мне непонятной причине решили, что там - прародина индоевропейского языка. Откуда прародина, почему прародина, мне остается непонятным. Аргументы, которые выдвигались, просто смешные, если на них сейчас посмотреть. Один их главных - "контакты с семитами". Ясен пень, контакты, это же Месопотамия. Понятно, что были контакты. Но при чем здесь прародина. У меня контакты с американцами каждый день, это что - моя прародина?

Понятно теперь?

Цитата(Dogon @ 7.1.2010, 14:55) *
Вас тогда вообще не должна интересовать индоевропейская семья языков, потому что это не арийские языки, ибо не все они связаны с ариями, родом R1a1.


Вы понимаете, что ерунду говорите? И с какой стати Вы ограничиваете мои интересы только родом R1a1?


Цитата(Dogon @ 7.1.2010, 14:55) *
Арийский язык вообще не имеет отношения к генетической классификации языков мира. Если у киргизов много R1a1, то их язык тоже арийский


И опять полную ерунду говорите. Вы смешиваете эпохи. Я-то говорю про 6-5-4 тысяч лет назад, какие киргизы? Вы бы еще про советскую власть заговорили. Киргизы гаплогруппы R1a1 - прямые потомки ариев по мужской линии. Но у них язык давно сменился.

Цитата(Dogon @ 7.1.2010, 14:55) *
Арии - это совсем другая плоскость, никакого отношения к языкам не имеющая.


Ну спасибо, открыли глаза. Просветили. Сейчас - не имеющая, а 5-4 тысячи лет назад очень даже имеющая. Это ИХ язык был, все еще до Вас не дошло? Вы все время смешиваете эпохи. Языки с тех пор давно разошлись.

Цитата(Dogon @ 7.1.2010, 14:55) *
Например, J2 тоже могут быть носителями праиндоевропейского - есть и в Албании, и в Индии.


Опять снова-здорово.

Да и негр преклонных годов мог быть носителем пра-индоевропейского. Если предварительно обучился, конечно. Или научили. И J2 могли научиться у ариев, и стать носителями арийского языка. Я вот - носитель английского. Ну и что?

И при чем здесь Албания? Вы опять про современность? Или у Вас Албания была 5000 лет назад?

Опять терпеливо поясняю - то, что R1a1 были носителями арийского, "пра-индоевропейского", это наверное уже и Вам понятно. Они его в Индию принесли. Где у Вас данные, что J2 5000 лет назад говорили на арийском языке? Опять вы за свое "могут быть". Что значит "могут"? Опять гадания на кофейной гуще? Где данные? Почему не полинезийский язык? Почему не язык мумбо-юмбо у J2? Почему непременно арийский? Откуда Вы это берете? На основании каких данных? В Индии все гаплогруппы есть. Почему J2, а не G?

Заметьте, Вы никогда ничего не выдвигаете, у Вас всё "могли быть". А может, и не могли. А может, и не они. Может, и не то. Не там, может быть. Может быть, не туда.

Не надоело?


--------------------
Y-DNA: R1a-Z283
mt-DNA: H

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Dogon
сообщение 8.1.2010, 9:49
Сообщение #384


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Всё равно я до сих пор вижу подмену общего частным. Вы взяли индоариев с их R1a1, потому что R1a1 есть так же у славян, и родили теорию на основании некоторого наличия гаплогруппы у всего-то пары ветвей ИЕ языков... ph34r.gif
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_Urkoveц_*
сообщение 8.1.2010, 10:29
Сообщение #385





Гости






... и территорий.
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Dogon
сообщение 8.1.2010, 10:53
Сообщение #386


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http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/vaop/nc...hg2009231a.html

всё-таки говорят, что это древняя миграция в Африку. интересно, почему R1b там не вымерли, а сумели акклиматизироваться. wacko.gif
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Valikhan
сообщение 8.1.2010, 14:03
Сообщение #387


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Чтобы окончательно прояснить вопрос об изначальном ариеязычии R1a1, я бы копал в 3-х направлениях:
1. Древние R1a1 в Индии.
2. Древние R1a1 в Северном Китае.
3. Языки-изоляты в горном Памире-Гиндукуше. Их вроде бы как затрудняются определить в какую-либо языковую семью. Интересно было бы узнать их гаплогруппы.

А иначе так и будут возникать сомнения, поскольку распространение арийского языка наблюдается только с Балкан 12000 лет назад. До этого провал.

J не подходит, иврит агглютинативный язык.

В отношении языков, слишком уж всё вертится вокруг Кавказа, так или иначе. Да и различных языков там как в той же Папуа, немеряно


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Valikhan
сообщение 10.1.2010, 12:09
Сообщение #388


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Так на каком же языке говорили R1b?? Или они цепляли языки на своём пути и разносили дальше? Скажем баскский с Кавказа в Европу. Чадские языки в Африку. Откуда? Тоже в конечном счёте с Кавказа?

http://dna-forums.com/index.php?/blog/2-distant-past/

R1b1a (V88) reaches its highest percentages in central Sahel (northern Cameroon, northern Nigeria, Chad, and Niger). It is strongly correlated with the Chadic languages, a branch of the large Afro-Asiatic family. The R1b link with Chadic was discernible earlier. Mathilda's Anthropology Blog deduced that R1b and E1b1b1b (E-M81) brought Afro-Asiatic languages and farming from the Near East. But the link between R1b1a (V88) and Chadic emerges even more clearly from the work of Cruciani and his colleagues. It is a keynote of their study.


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Valikhan
сообщение 10.1.2010, 12:12
Сообщение #389


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http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wordpress...r-afro-asiatic/

Y chromosomes are against an African origin for Afro Asiatic.

Against an African origin-

The Genetics

Once it became apparent that Omotic as an Afro Asiatic language was dubious, with it being shown to be a language isolate by several linguists- it turned out all the African Afro Asiatic speakers show Neolithic Y chromosome input from the near East, in some cases overwhelmingly. The main examples for this are the Ouldeme and other Chadic speaking tribes in Cameroon, who have tested as having an outstandingly high percentage of the Y chromosome R1b, a Eurasian Y chromosome that fits the spread of Chadic languages like a glove. As far as I can tell, the ultimate point of origin for this seems to be SE Turkey, which is within the origin area of the agricultural Neolithic expansion. So, most Chadic male ancestry traces back to the origin point of the Neolithic, which is a big supporter of an Asian origin for Afro Asiatic.

Another Y chromosome that shows a population movementthat tracks Afro Asiatic is from the Nile delta – the M81 Y chromosome. The advent of this mutation is extremely close in time to the entry of R1b’s entry into North East Africa, and it appears to have spread out into North Africa with the Neolithic farmers, and also as far as Somalia, where it is found at a very low rate, but just enough to confirm a Neolithic movement from North to South along the Nile.


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aklyosov
сообщение 10.1.2010, 17:38
Сообщение #390


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Цитата(Dogon @ 8.1.2010, 1:49) *
Всё равно я до сих пор вижу подмену общего частным. Вы взяли индоариев с их R1a1, потому что R1a1 есть так же у славян, и родили теорию на основании некоторого наличия гаплогруппы у всего-то пары ветвей ИЕ языков... ph34r.gif


Опять не понимаете, а не понимаете потому, что смешиваете эпохи. К какой эпохе относится Ваше "пары ветвей ИЕ языков"?

Еще Ваша постоянная ошибка - Вы видите картину в статике, а надо в динамике. А в динамике - это от примерно 6 тысяч лет назад (опустим предыдущие 6 тысяч лет, мы там про языки все равно не знаем) до настоящего времени.

Так вот, гаплогруппа R1a1 6-4 тысяч лет назад освоила Европу, 5 тысяч лет назад вышла из Европы со своим языком, освоила все пространство Русской равнины от Балтики до Кавказа и до Урала и Зауралье, прошла в Переднюю Азию, отдельной ветвью прошла в Индию, отдельной ветвью - в Иран.

Где же это Вы видите "пару ветвей" и "пару территорий"?

И каждая из этих ветвей и территорий дала языковые ветви. И в зарубежной Европе, и в Передней Азии, и на Русской равнине, и балтийская группа, и будущие славянские языки, и целое разветвленное дерево иранских языков, и серию индийских языков. Фактически, начиная с 6 тысяч лет назад ветвилось дерево арийских языков, получая по ветвям различные названия, и переходя на различные рода и популяции, уже совсем не гаплогруппы R1a1.

А Вы "сидите на стене 3-го еврейского кладбища" (С) и говорите - "так ИЕ языки вовсе не только гаплогруппы R1a1". Сейчас - естественно, и в Африке нынче многие говорят на ИЕ языках, и в Австралии, и в Антарктиде. Вот что значит смешивание эпох.

Опять - где здесь "пара ветвей" и "пара территорий"?

Представленная картина показывает, что именно R1a1 были носителями арийских, "пра-индоевропейских" языков, от Европы до Урала и далее, и от Балтики и Скандинавии до Индийского океана. Мы не знаем точно, на каком диалекте говорили носители гаплогруппы R1a1 на Аравийском полуострове, но нет оснований полагать, что не на арийских языках. Вот Вам и "пара территорий".



--------------------
Y-DNA: R1a-Z283
mt-DNA: H

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aklyosov
сообщение 10.1.2010, 17:42
Сообщение #391


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Цитата(Valikhan @ 8.1.2010, 6:03) *
Чтобы окончательно прояснить вопрос об изначальном ариеязычии R1a1, я бы копал в 3-х направлениях:
1. Древние R1a1 в Индии.
2. Древние R1a1 в Северном Китае.
3. Языки-изоляты в горном Памире-Гиндукуше.


Ну так копайте. Кто запрещает-то? Поднимите работы лингвистов по языкам и диалектам индийских джунглей, племенам, там обитающих; по языкам этнических групп в Северном Китае, у которых до четверти R1a1, названия этих групп - в моей статье. То же и по третьей позиции.

Тогда это будет предметно. Пока - нет.



--------------------
Y-DNA: R1a-Z283
mt-DNA: H

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Dogon
сообщение 10.1.2010, 18:26
Сообщение #392


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По народу бурушо, говорящем на изоляте бурушаски, я пока только это видел:

http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v15/n1/.../5201726f1.html

Получается, что у бурушо целый коктейль, хотя около четверти - R1a1? O_o
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Dogon
сообщение 10.1.2010, 19:08
Сообщение #393


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http://www.ethnologue.com/show_map.asp?name=PK&seq=10

север Пакистана, где находится бурушаски, не очень простой регион по дробности языков, как видите.
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aklyosov
сообщение 10.1.2010, 20:06
Сообщение #394


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Цитата(Dogon @ 10.1.2010, 10:26) *
Получается, что у бурушо целый коктейль, хотя около четверти - R1a1? O_o


Не могли бы связно написать, а что Вас в этом удивляет?

Вы опять рассматриваете в статике, и в этом Ваша фундаментальная проблема. А если бы рассматривали в динамике - то имели бы несколько альтернатив. Первая - что бурушо когда-то были 100% R1a1, но пришли супостаты (или друзья), и на три четверти бурушо подвинули. А уж с какими языками приходили друзья-супостаты, мы не знаем. Вот и коктейль. Вторая - что бурушо изначально были другие гаплогруппы, со своими языками, и их на четверть подвинули прибывшие R1a1. Опять имеем коктейль.
Третья и далее везде - любые промежуточные варианты. Тоже в каждом - коктейль.

Повторяю вопрос - и что Вас в этом таки удивляет?



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Y-DNA: R1a-Z283
mt-DNA: H

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Valikhan
сообщение 11.1.2010, 11:08
Сообщение #395


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Цитата(aklyosov @ 10.1.2010, 9:42) *
Ну так копайте. Кто запрещает-то? Поднимите работы лингвистов по языкам и диалектам индийских джунглей, племенам, там обитающих; по языкам этнических групп в Северном Китае, у которых до четверти R1a1, названия этих групп - в моей статье. То же и по третьей позиции.

Тогда это будет предметно. Пока - нет.


Не потяну. Не лингвист да и со временем туго.


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aklyosov
сообщение 11.1.2010, 13:57
Сообщение #396


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Цитата(Valikhan @ 11.1.2010, 3:08) *
Не потяну. Не лингвист да и со временем туго.


Я понимаю. Но без таких материалов дискуссия бесплодна.

Слишком часто приходится сталкиваться с положениями даже и лингвистов, которые просто не в курсе того, что очевидно для ДНК-генеалогии. Вот что мне пишет лингвист:

мы не можем представить себе, как могло такое случиться, что, например, индоевропейцы имеют какие-то общие слова с дравидами, с которыми, если опираться на факты других наук, они не должны иметь ничего общего.

И вот что я ему отвечаю:

Да у "индоевропейцев", гаплогруппа R1a1, масса общего с дравидами. Во-первых, в Индии полно дравидов той же гаплогруппы, R1a1. Это - тот же род, в прошлом - тот же язык, просто одна часть рода ушла в Европу, и стала ариями, другая ушла в Индию. И теперь многие R1a1 живут в джунглях. Но это не всё. До разделения на современные гаплогруппы они были сводным, одним родом, и, и сводная гаплогруппа K-R включала будущие гаплогруппы L и М, которые потом ушли на восток и стали дравидами. То есть когда-то это был с "пра-ИЕ" один род. Был один язык. Понимаете, к чему я клоню?



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mt-DNA: H

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Valikhan
сообщение 27.1.2010, 11:42
Сообщение #397


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http://bayar.ws/index.php?option=com_conte...3&Itemid=58

Хунну были изначально тюркоязычны и имели европеоидный облик. Появились на востоке в составе европеоидных ираноязычных племен ди или в связи с этими историческими процессами. Таким регионом, где проживали в ту пору европеоиды, были восток Средней Азии и Восточный Казахстан. Если это так, то в предках хунну, вероятнее всего, преобладали черты древнего населения Евразии. Это, с одной стороны, древняя «белокурая раса», известная по древнекитайским преданиям, происхождение которых северное, близкое к селькупам, с другой – европеоиды средиземноморского круга племен из Средней Азии. На востоке они подверглись монголоизации, на западе Центральной Азии и на севере страны Чин сохранили европеоидность. Их самостоятельная история была перечеркнута появление галлов, тохар и иранцев. Возможно, их этническую историю скрывают гаплогруппы Q и К (центральноазиатские булгары), R1b (галлы и тохары), R1a (иранцы). Но это предположения.


Теперь понятно почему китайцы молчат о таримских мумиях. Ведь древняя R1b распространена среди тюрок - казахов, башкир и УЙГУР.

http://bayar.ws/index.php?option=com_conte...1&Itemid=56

В этом плане представляет интерес генетический анализ современного населения Западного края. В них преобладают маркеры гаплогрупп (по убывающей) индоевропейцев (восточных и западных) R1a и R1b, затем южный монголоидный (китайский) O, группа западно-азиатских J, K и G, центральноазиатский монголоидный C, южно-индийские R*R1 (он явно пришлый для этих краев) и L, западносибирский Q и в небольшом числе другие. Очевидно, гаплогруппы R1b и R1a связывают уйгур с пришлыми племенами кельтов, тохар и арийцев (иранцев), а J, K, L и G – с древним исходным населением Западной Азии, которое вошло в состав иранцев придало их облику средиземноморские черты, что стало отличительной чертой сакского кочевого населения.




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Dogon
сообщение 27.1.2010, 12:37
Сообщение #398


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Цитата(aklyosov @ 10.1.2010, 20:06) *
Повторяю вопрос - и что Вас в этом таки удивляет?


Ну, я вообще как-то ожидал, что у бурушо как вероятного реликта по языку будет преобладать какая-нибудь типичная для Южной Азии гаплогруппа (R2, L или H), а оказался хитрый микс. В этом удивительность. Вон у реликтовых по языку басков ведь преобладает R1b, а здесь такой контраст. smile.gif
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Valikhan
сообщение 11.2.2010, 11:54
Сообщение #399


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http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_hapl...urope.shtml#R1b

European haplogroups

Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA)
Distribution of haplogroup R1b in Europe


R1b is the most common haplogroup in Western Europe, reaching over 80% of the population in Ireland, the Scottish Highlands, western Wales, the Atlantic fringe of France and the Basque country. It is also common in Anatolia and around the Caucasus, in parts of Russia and in Central and South Asia. Besides the Atlantic and North Sea coast of Europe, hotspots include the Po valley in north-central Italy (over 70%), the Ossetians of the North Caucasus (over 40%) and nearby Armenia (35%), the Bashkirs of the Urals region of Russia (50%), Turkmenistan (over 35%), the Hazara people of Afghanistan (35%), the Uyghurs of North-West China (20%) and the Newars of Nepal (11%). R1b-V88, a subclade specific to sub-Saharan Africa, is found in 60 to 95% of men in northern Cameroon.

Anatolian or Caucasian origins ?

The origins of R1b are not entirely clear to this day. Some of the oldest forms of R1b are found in the Near East and around the Caucasus. Haplogroup R1* and R2* might have originated in southern Central Asia (between the Caspian and the Hindu Kush). A branch of R1 would have developed into R1b* then R1b1* in the northern part of the Middle East during the Ice Age. It presumptively moved to northern Anatolia and across the Caucasus during the early Neolithic, where it became R1b1b. The Near Eastern leftovers evolved into R1b1a (M18), now found at low frequencies among the Lebanese and the Druze.The Phoenicians (who came from modern day Lebanon) spread this R1b1a and R1b1* to their colonies, notably Sardinia and the Maghreb.

The subclades R1b1b1 and R1b1b2 (the most common form in Europe) are closely associated with the spread of Indo-European languages, as attested by its presence in all regions of the world where Indo-European languages were spoken in ancient times, from the Atlantic coast of Europe to the Indian subcontinent, including almost all Europe (except Finland and Bosnia-Herzegovina), Anatolia, Armenia, Europan Russia, southern Siberia, many pockets around Central Asia (notably Xinjiang, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan), without forgetting Iran, Pakistan, India and Nepal. The history of R1b and R1a are intricately connected to each others. Whereas R1b1 is found is such places as the Levant or Cameroon, R1b1b mostly likely originated in north-eastern Anatolia.

The North Caucasus and the Pontic-Caspian steppe : the Indo-European link

Modern linguists have placed the Proto-Indo-European homeland in the Pontic-Caspian steppe, a distinct geographic and archeological region extending from the Danube estuary to the Ural mountains to the east and North Caucasus to the south. The Neolithic, Eneolithic and early Bronze Age cultures in Pontic-Caspian steppe has been called the Kurgan culture (7000-2200 BCE) by Marija Gimbutas, due to the lasting practice of burying the deads under mounds ("kurgan") among the succession of cultures in that region. Horses were first domesticated around 4000 BCE in the steppe, perhaps somewhere around the Don or the lower Volga, and soon became a defining element of steppe culture. During the Bronze-age period, known as the Yamna horizon (3300-2500 BCE), the cattle and sheep herders adopted wagons to transport their food and tents, which allowed them to move deeper into the steppe, giving rise to a new mobile lifestyle that would eventually lead to the great Indo-European migrations.

The Pontic-Caspian steppe cultures can be divided in a western group, ranging from the Don River to the Dniester (and later Danube), and an eastern one, in the Volga-Ural region. The Pontic steppe was probably inhabited by men of mixed R1a and R1b lineages, with higher densities of R1b just north of the Caucasus, and more R1a in the the northern steppes and the forest-steppes.

R1b almost certainly crossed over from northern Anatolia to the Pontic-Caspian steppe. It is not clear whether this happened before, during or after the Neolithic. A regular flow of R1b across the Caucasus cannot be excluded either. The genetic diversity of R1b being greater around the Caucasus, it is hard to deny that R1b settled and evolved there before entering the steppe world. Does that mean that Indo-European languages originated in the steppes with R1a people, and that R1b immigrants blended into the established culture ? Or that Proro-Indo-European language appear in northern Anatolia or in the Caucasus, then spread to the steppes with R1b ? Or else did Proro-Indo-European first appear in the steppe as a hybrid language of Caucasian/Anatolian R1b and steppe R1a ? This question has no obvious answer, but based on the antiquity and archaic character of the Anatolian branch (Hittite, Palaic, Luwian, Lydian, and so on) an northern Anatolian origin of Proto-Indo-European is credible. Furthermore, there is documented evidence of loan words from Caucasian languages in Indo-European languages. This is much more likely to have happened if Proto-Indo-European developed near the Caucasus than in the distant steppes. R1b would consequently have been the spreading factor of PIE to the steppes, and from there to Europe, Central Asia and South Asia.

The Maykop culture, the R1b link to the steppe ?

The Maykop culture (3700-2500 BCE), in the North Caucasus, was culturally speaking a sort of southern extension of the Yamna horizon. Although not generally considered part of the Pontic-Caspian steppe culture due to its geography, the North Caucasus had close links with the steppe, as attested by numerous ceramics, gold, copper and bronze weapons and jewelry in the contemporaneous cultures of Mikhaylovka, Sredny Stog and Kemi Oba. The link between the North Pontic and North Caucasus is older than the Maykop period. Its predecessor, the Svobodnoe culture (4400-3700 BCE), already had links to the Suvorovo-Novodanilovka and early Sredny Stog cultures, and the even older Nalchik settlement (5000-4500 BCE) displayed a similar culture as Khvalynsk on the Volga. This may be the period when R1b started interracting and blending with the R1a population of the steppes.

The Yamna and Maykop people both used kurgan burials, with their deads in a supine position with raised knees and oriented in a north-east/south-west axis. Graves were sparkled with red ochre on the floor, and sacrificed dometic animal buried alongside humans. They also had in common horse riding, wagons, a cattle- and sheep-based economy, the use of copper/bronze battle-axes (both hammer-axes and sleeved axes) and tanged daggers. In fact, the oldest wagons and bronze artefacts are found in the North Caucasus, and spread from there to the steppes.

Maykop was an advanced Bronze Age culture, actually one of the very first to develop metalworking, and therefore metal weapons. The world's oldest sword was found at a late Maykop grave in Klady kurgan 31. Its style is reminiscent of the long Celtic swords, though less elaborated. Horse bones and depictions of horses already appear in early Maykop graves, suggesting that the Maykop culture might have been founded by steppe people or by people who had close link with them. However, the presence of cultural elements radically different from the steppe culture in some sites could mean that Maykop had a hybrid population. Without DNA testing it is impossible to say if these two populations were an Anatolian R1b group and a G2a Caucasian group, or whether R1a people had settled there two. The two or three etnicities might even have cohabited side by side in different settlements. Typical Caucasian Y-DNA lineages (such as G2a) do not follow the pattern of Indo-European migrations, so intermarriages must have been limited, or at least restricted to Indo-European men taking Caucasian wives rather than the other way round.

Maykop people are the ones credited for the introduction of primitive wheeled vehicles (wagons) from Mesopotamia to the steppes. This would revolutionise the way of life in the steppe, and would later lead to the development of (horse-drawn) war chariots around 2000 BCE. Cavalry and chariots played an vital role in the subsequent Indo-European migrations, allowing them to move quickly and defeat easily anybody they encountered. Combined with advanced bronze weapons and their sea-based culture, the western branch (R1b) of the Indo-Europeans from the Black Sea shores are excellent candidates for being the mysterious Sea Peoples, who raided the eastern shores of the Mediterranean during the second millennium BCE.

The rise of the IE-speaking Hittites in Central Anatolia happened a few centuries after the disappearance of the Maykop culture. A back migration from the North Caucasus to northern Anatolia is very likely in this age of expansion. What is certain is that the Hittites used chariots, invented in the Volga-Ural steppes. R1a being found a low frequencies in Armenia and northern Anatolia, it is not unreasonable to imagine that a hybrid group of R1a-R1b from the Volga-Ural region migrated to this region sometime between 2000 BCE and 1650 BCE.

The European branch

The Indo-Europeans' bronze weapons and horses would have given them a tremendous advantage over the autochthonous inhabitants of Europe, namely the native haplogroup I (descendant of Cro-Magnon), and the early Neolithic herders and farmers (G2a, J2, E-V13 and T). This allowed R1a and R1b to replace (=> see How did R1b come to replace most of the older lineages in Western Europe ? most of the native male lineages, although female lineages seem to have been less affected.

A comparison with the Indo-Iranian invasion of South Asia shows that 40% of the male linages of northern India are R1a, but less than 10% of the female lineages could be of Indo-European origin. The impact of the Indo-Europeans was more severe in Europe because European society 4,000 years ago was less developed in terms of agriculture, technology (no bronze weapons) and population density than that of the Indus Valley civilization. This is particularly true of the native Western European cultures where farming arrived much later than in the Balkans or central Europe. Greece, the Balkans and the Carpathians were the most advanced of European societies at the time and were the least affected in terms of haplogroup replacement. Native European Y-DNA haplogroups (I1, I2a, I2b) also survived better in regions that were more difficult to reach or less hospitable, like Scandinavia, Brittany, Sardinia or the Dinaric Alps.

The first forrays of steppe people into the Balkans happened between 4200 BCE and 3900 BCE, when horse riders crossed the Dniester and Danube and apparently destroyed the towns of the Gumelnita, Varna and Karanovo VI cultures in Eastern Romania and Bulgaria. A climatic change resulting in colder winters during this exact period probably pushed steppe herders to seek milder pastures for their stock, while failed crops would have led to famine and internal disturbance within the Danubian and Balkanic communities. The ensuing Cernavoda culture (4000-3200 BCE) and Ezero culture (3300-2700 BCE) seems to have had a mixed population of steppe immigrants and people from the old tell settlements. These steppe immigrants were likely a mixture of both R1a and R1b lineages. Many Danubian farmers would also have migrated to the Cucuteni-Tripolye towns in the Eastern Carpathians, causing a population boom and a north-eastward expansion until the Dnieper valley, bringing Y-haplogroups E-V13, J2b and T in what is now central Ukraine. This precocious Indo-European advance westward was fairly limited, due to the absence of Bronze weapons and organised army at the time, and was indeed only possible thanks to climatic catastrophes. The Carphatian, Danubian, and Balkanic cultures were too densely populated and technologically advanced to allow for a massive migration.

The Bronze Age annnounces a very different development. R1a people appear to have been the first to successfully penetrate into the heart of Europe, with the Corded Ware (Battle Axe) culture (3200-1800 BCE) as a natural western expansion of the Yamna culture. They went as far west as Germany and Scandinavia. DNA analysis from the Corded Ware culture site of Eulau confirms the presence of R1a (but not R1b) in central Germany around 2600 BCE. The Corded Ware migrants might well have expanded from the forest-steppe, or the northern fringe of the Yamna culture, where R1a lineages were prevalent over R1b ones.

R1b1b2 is thought to have arrived in central and western Europe around 2500 BCE, by going up the Danube from the Black Sea coast. The archeological and genetic evidence (distribution of R1b subclades) point at several consecutive waves towards the Danube between 2800 BCE and 2300 BCE (beginning of the Unetice culture). It is interesting to note that this also corresponds to the end of the Maykop culture (2500 BCE) and Kemi Oba culture (2200 BCE) on the northern shores of the Black Sea, and their replacement by cultures descended from the northern steppes. It can therefore be envisaged that the (mostly) R1b population from the northern half of the Black Sea migrated westward due to pressure from other Indo-European people (R1a) from the north, like the burgeoning Proto-Indo-Iranian branch, linked to the contemporary Poltavka and Abashevo cultures.

It is doubtful that the Beaker culture (2800-1900 BCE) was already Indo-European (although they were influenced by the Corded Ware culture), because they were the continuity of the native Megalithic cultures. It is more likely that the beakers and horses found across western Europe during that period were the result of trade with neighbouring Indo-European cultures, including the first wave of R1b into central Europe. Nevertheless, it is undeniable that the following Unetice (2300-1600 BCE), Tumulus (1600-1200 BCE), Urnfield (1300-1200 BCE) and Hallstatt (1200-750) cultures were linked to the spread of R1b to Europe, as they abruptly introduce new technologies and a radically different lifestyle.


Did the Indo-Europeans really invade Western Europe ?
Proponents of the Paleolithic or Neolithic continuity model argue that bronze technology and horses could have been imported by Western Europeans from their Eastern European neighbours, and that no actual Indo-European invasion need be involved. It is harder to see how Italic, Celtic and Germanic languages were adopted by Western and Northern Europeans without at least a small scale invasion. It has been suggested that Indo-European (IE) languages simply spread through contact, just like technologies, or because it was the language of a small elite and therefore its adoption conferred a certain perceived prestige. However people don't just change language like that because it sounds nicer or more prestigious. Even nowadays, with textbooks, dictionaries, compulsory language courses at school, private language schools for adults and multilingual TV programs, the majority of the people cannot become fluent in a completely foreign language, belonging to a different language family. The linguistic gap between pre-IE vernaculars and IE languages was about as big as between modern English and Chinese. English, Greek, Russian and Hindi are all related IE languages and therefore easier to learn for IE speakers than non-IE languages like Chinese, Arabic or Hungarian. From a linguistic point of view, only a wide-scale migration of IE speakers could explain the thorough adoption of IE languages in Western Europe - leaving only Basque as a remnant of the Neolithic languages.

One important archeological argument in favour of the replacement of Neolithic cultures by Indo-European culture in the Bronze Age comes from pottery styles. The sudden appearance of bronze technology in Western Europe coincides with ceramics suddenly becoming more simple and less decorated, just like in the Pontic steppes. Until then, pottery had constantly evolved towards greater complexity and details for over 3,000 years. People do not just decide like that to revert to a more primitive style. Perhaps one isolated tribe might experiment with something simpler at one point, but what are the chances that distant cultures from Iberia, Gaul, Italy and Britain all decide to undertake such an improbable shift around the same time ? The best explanation is that this new style was imposed by foreign invaders. In this case it is not mere speculation; there is ample evidence that this simpler pottery is characteristic of the steppes associated with the emergence of Proto-Indo-European speakers.

Besides pottery, archeology provides ample evidence that the early Bronze Age in Central and Western Europe coincides with a radical shift in food production. Agriculture experiences an abrupt reduction in exchange for an increased emphasis on domesticates. This is also a period when horses become more common and cow milk is being consumed regularly. The oeverall change mimicks the steppe way of life almost perfectly. Even after the introduction of agriculture around 5200 BCE, the Bug-Dniester culture and later steppe cultures were characterized by an economy dominated by herding, with only limited farming. This pattern expands into Europe exactly at the same time as bronze working.

Religious beliefs and arts undergo a complete reversal in Bronze Age Europe. Neolithic societies in the Near East and Europe had always worshipped female figurines as a form of fertility cult. The steppe cultures, on the contrary, did not manufacture female figurines. As bronze technology spreads from the Danube valley to Western Europe, symbols of fertility and fecundity progressively disappear and are replaced by scultures of domesticated animals.

Another clue that Indo-European steppe people came in great number to Central and Western Europe is to be found in burial practices. Neolithic Europeans either cremated their dead (e.g. Cucuteni-Tripolye culture) or buried them in collective graves (this was the case of Megalithic cultures). In the steppe, each person was buried individually, and high-ranking graves were placed in a funeral chamber and topped by a circular mound. The body was typically accompanied by weapons (maces, axes, daggers), horse bones, and a dismantled wagon (or later chariot). These characteristic burial mounds are known as kurgans in the Pontic steppe. Men were given more sumptuous tombs than women, even among children, and differences in hierarchy are obvious between burials. The Indo-Europeans had a strongly hierarchical and patrilinear society, as opposed to the more egalitarian and matrilinear cultures of Old Europe. The proliferation of ststus-conscious male-dominant kurgans (or tumulus) in Central Europe during the Bronze Age is a clear sign that the ruling elite had now become Indo-European. The practice also spread to Central Asia and Southern Siberia, two regions where R1a and R1b lineages are found nowadays, just like in Central Europe. The ceremony of burial is one of the most emotionally charged and personal aspect of a culture. It is highly doubtful that people would change their ancestral practice "just to do like the neighbours". In fact, different funerary practices have co-existed side by side during the European Neolithic and Chalcolithic. The ascendancy of yet another constituent of the Pontic steppe culture in the rest of Europe, and in this case one that does not change easily through contact with neighbours, adds up to the likelihood of a strong Indo-European migration. The adoption of some elements of a foreign culture tends to happen when one civilization overawes the adjacent cultures by its superiority. This process is called 'acculturation'. However there is nothing that indicates that the steppe culture was so culturally superior as to motivate a whole continent, even Atlantic cultures over 2000 km away from the Pontic steppes, to abadndon so many fundamental symbols of their own ancestral culture, and even their own language. In fact, Old Europe was far more refined in its pottery and jewellery than the rough steppe people. The Indo-European superiority was cultural but military, thanks to horses, bronze weapons and an ethic code valuing individual heroic feats in war (these ethic values are known from the old IE texts, like the Rig Veda, Avesta, or the Mycenaean and Hittite literature).

After linguistics and archeology, the third category of evidence comes from genetics itself. It had first been hypothetised that R1b was native to Western Europe, because this is where it was most prevalent. It has since been proven that R1b haplotypes displayed higher microsatellite diversity in Anatolia and in the Caucasus than in Europe. European subclades are also more recent than Middle Eastern or Central Asian ones. The main European subclade, R-P312/S116, only dates back to approximately 3500 to 3000 BCE. It does not mean that the oldest common ancestor of this lineage arrived in Western Europe during this period, but that the first person who carried the mutation R-P312/S116 lived at least 5,000 years ago, assumably somewhere in the lower Danube valley or around the Black Sea. In any case this timeframe is far too recent for a Paleolithic origin or a Neolithic arrival of R1b. The discovery of what was thought to be "European lineages" in Central Asia, Pakistan and India hit the final nail on the coffin of a Paleolithic origin of R1b in Western Europe, and confirmed the Indo-European link.

All the elements concur in favour of a large scale migration of horse-riding Indo-European speakers to Western Europe between 2500 to 2100 BCE, contributing to the replacement of the Neolithic or Chalcolithic lifestyle by a inherently new Bronze Age culture, with simpler pottery, less farming, more herding, new rituals (single graves) and new values (patrilinear society, warrior heroes) that did not evolve from local predecessors.



These Proto-Italo-Celto-Germanic R1b people had settled around the Alps by 2300 BCE, and judging from the spread of bronze working, reached Iberia by 2250 BCE, Britain by 2100 BCE and Ireland by 2000 BCE. This first wave of R1b assumably carried R1b-L21 lineages in great number, as these are found everywhere in western, northern and central Europe. A second R1b expansion took place from the Urnfield/Hallstatt culture around 1200 BCE, pushing west to the Atlantic, north to Scandinavia, and as far east as Greece and Anatolia (=> see Dorian invasion below).

The new Bronze Age culture flourished around the Alps (Unetice to early Hallstatt) thanks to the abundance of metal in the region, and laid the foundation for the classical Celtic culture. The Celtic Iron Age (late Halstatt, from 800 BCE) may have been brought through preserved contacts with the the steppes and the North Caucasus, notably the Koban culture (1100-400 BCE).

The Alpine Celts of the Hallstatt culture are associated with the S28 (a.k.a. U152) mutation, although not exclusively. The Italic branch (also S28/U152) is thought to have entered Italy by 1200 BCE, but there were certainly several succesive waves, as attested by the later arrival of the Cisalpine Celts. The Belgae were another S28/U152 branch, an extension of the La Tène culture northward, following the Rhine, Moselle and Meuse rivers.

One common linguistic trait between Italic and Gaulish/Brythonic Celtic languages linked to the Hallstatt expansion is that they shifted the oiginal IE *kw sound into *p. They are known to linguists as the P-Celtic branch. It is thought that this change occured due to the inability to pronounce the *kw sound by the pre-Indo-European population of central Europe, Gaul and Italy, who were speakers of Afro-Asiatic dialects that had evolved from a Near-Eastern language. The Etruscans, although later incomers from the Levant, also fit in this category. It has recently been acknowledged that Celtic languages borrowed part of their grammar from Afro-Asiatic languages. This shift could have happened when the Proto-Italo-Celtic speakers moved from the steppes to the Danube basin and mixed with the population of Near-Eastern farmers belonging to haplogroups E-V13, T, G2a and J2b. However, such an early shift would not explain why Q-Celtic languages developed in Ireland and Iberia. It is more plausible that the shift happened after the Italo-Celts had first expanded across all western Europe. The S28/U152 connection to P-Celtic suggests that the shift took place around the Alps and Italy after 1200 BCE.

R1b-S21 (a.k.a. U106) is found at high concentrations in the Netherlands and northern Germany. Its presence in other parts of Europe can be attributed to the 5th- and 6th-century Germanic migrations. The Frisians and Saxons spread this haplogroup to the British Isles, the Franks to Belgium and France, and the Lombards to Austria and northern Italy. The high concentration of S21/U106 around Austria hints that it could have originated there in the Hallstatt period, or originated around the Black Sea and moved there during the Hallstatt period. In fact, southern Germany and Austria taken together have the highest diversity of R1b in Europe. Besides S21, the three major first level subclades of R1b1b2a1b (L21, S28, M167) are found in this area at reasonable frequencies to envisage a spread from the Unetice to Hallstatt homeland to the rest of western Europe.

=> Trivia : Kings of many European countries have been confirmed to be R1b through genetic genealogy.


How did R1b come to replace most of the older lineages in Western Europe ?
Until recently it was believed that R1b originated in Western Europe due to its strong presence in the region today. The theory was that R1b represented the Paleolithic Europeans (Cro-Magnon) that had sought refuge in the Franco-Cantabrian region at the peak of the last Ice Age, then recolonised Central and Northern Europe once the ice sheet receded. The phylogeny of R1b proved that this scenario was not possible, because older R1b clades were consistently found in Central Asia and the Middle East, and the youngest in Western and Northern Europe. There was a clear gradient from East to West tracing the migration of R1b people (see map above). This age of the main migration from the shores of the Black Sea to Central Europe also happened to match the timeframe of the Indo-European invasion of Europe, which coincides with the introduction of the Bronze-Age culture in Western Europe, and the spread of Italo-Celtic and Germanic languages.

Historians and archeologists have long argued whether the Indo-European migration was a massive invasion, or rather a cultural diffusion of language and technology spread only by a small number of incomers. The answer could well be "neither". Proponents of the diffusion theory would have us think that R1b is native to Western Europe, and R1a alone represent the Indo-Europeans. The problem is that haplogroup R did arise in Central Asia, and R2 is still restricted to Central and South Asia, while R1a and the older subclades of R1b are also found in Central Asia. The age of R1b subclades in Europe coincide with the Bronze-Age. R1b must consequently have replaced most of the native Y-DNA lineages in Europe from the Bronze-Age onwards.

However, a massive migration and nearly complete anihilation of the Paleolithic population can hardly be envisaged. Western Europeans do look quite different in Ireland, Holland, Aquitaine or Portugal, despite being all regions where R1b is dominant. Autosomal DNA studies have confirmed that the Western European population is far from homogeneous. A lot of maternal lineages (mtDNA) also appear to be of Paleolithic origin (e.g. H1, H3, U5 or V) based on ancient DNA tests. What a lot of people forget is that there is also no need of a large-scale exodus for patrilineal lineages to be replaced fairly quickly. Here is why.

Polygamy. Unlike women, men are not limited in the number of children they can procreate. Men with power typically have more children. This was all the truer in primitive societies, where polygamy was often the norm for chieftains and kings.
Status & Power. Equipped with Bronze weapons and horses, the Indo-Europeans would have easily subjugated the Neolithic farmers and with even greater ease Europe's last hunter-gatherers.If they did not exterminate the indigenous men, the newcomers would have become the new ruling class, with a multitude of local kings, chieftains and noblemen (Bronze-Age Celts and Germans lived in small village communities with a chief, each part of a small tribe headed by a king) with higher reproductive opportunities than average.
Gender imbalance. Invading armies normally have far more men than women. Men must therefore find women in the conquered population. Wars are waged by men, and the losers suffer heavier casualties, leaving more women available to the winners.
Aggressive warfare. The Indo-Europeans were a warlike people with a strong heroic code emphasising courage and military prowess. Their superior technology (metal weapons, wheeled vehicles and warhorses) and attitude to life would have allowed them to slaughter any population that did not have organised armies with metal weapons (i.e. anybody except the Middle-Eastern civilizations).
Genetic predisposition to conceive boys. The main role of the Y-chromosome in man's body is to create sperm. Haplogroups are determined based on mutations differentiating Y-chromosomes. Each mutation is liable to affect sperm production and sperm motility. Preliminary research has already established a link between certain haplogroups and increased or reduced sperm motility. The higher the motility, the higher the chances of conceiving a boy. It is absolutely possible that R1b could confer a bias toward more male offspring. Even a slightly higher percentage of male births would significantly contribute to the replacement of other lineages with the accumulation effect building up over a few millennia. Not all R1b subclades might have this boy bias. The bias only exist in relation to other haplogroups found in a same population. It is very possible that the fairly recent R1b subclades of Western Europe had a significant advantage compared to the older haplogroups in that region, notably haplogroup I2 and E-V13.
Replacement of patrilineal lineages following this model quickly becomes exponential. Imagine 100 Indo-European men conquering a tribe of 1000 indigenous Europeans (a ratio of 1:10). War casualties have resulted in a higher proportion of women in the conquered population. Let's say that the surviving population is composed of 700 women and 300 men. Let's suppose that the victorious Indo-European men end up having twice as many children reaching adulthood as the men of the vanquished tribe. There is a number of reason for that. The winners would take more wives, or take concubines, or even rape women of the vanquished tribe. Their higher status would garantee them greater wealth and therefore better nutrition for their offspring, increasing the chances of reaching adulthood and procreating themselves. An offspring ratio of 2 to 1 for men is actually a conservative estimate, as it is totally conceivable that Bronze-Age sensibilities would have resulted in killing most of the men on the losing side, and raping their women (as attested by the Old Testament). Even so, it would only take a few generations for the winning Y-DNA lineages to become the majority. For instance, if the first generation of Indo-Europeans had two surviving sons per man, against only one per indigenous man, the number of Indo-European paternal lineages would pass to 200 individuals at the second generation, 400 at the third, 800 at the fourth and 1600 at the fifth, and so on. During that time indigenous lineages would only stagnate at 300 individuals for each generation.

Based on such a scenario, the R1b lineages would have quickly overwhelmed the local lineages. Even if the Indo-European conquerors had only slightly more children than the local men, R1b lineages would become dominant within a few centuries. Celtic culture lasted for over 1000 years in Continental Europe before the Roman conquest putting an end to the priviledges of the chieftains and nobility. This is more than enough time for R1b lineages to reach 50 to 80% of the population.

The present-day R1b frequency forms a gradient from the Atlantic fringe of Europe (highest percentage) to Central and Eastern Europe (lowest), the rises again in the Anatolian homeland. This is almost certainly because agriculture was better established in Eastern, then Central Europe, with higher densities of population, leaving R1b invadors more outnumbered than in the West. Besides, other Indo-Europeans of the Corded Ware culture (R1a) had already advanced from modern Russia and Ukraine as far west as Germany and Scandinavia. It would be difficult for R1b people to rival with their R1a cousins who shared similar technology and culture. The Pre-Celto-Germanic R1b would therefore have been forced to settled further west, first around the Alps, then overtaking the then sparsely populated Western Europe.



The Greco-Anatolian branch

The Hittites (2000-1200 BCE) were the first Indo-Europeans to defy (and defeat) the mighty Mesopotamian and Egyptian empires. The Hittite ruling class was plausibly an offshoot of the late Maykop culture that conquered the Hattian kingdom. The Hattians might have had some R1b from the old Anatolian branch (from the early Neolithic) mixed with the other Anatolian E-M78, G2a and J2 people.

Troy was most probably a colony to secure the trade routes between the Black Sea and the Aegean. The Trojans were Luwian speakers related to the Hittites, with proven cultural ties to the culture of the Pontic-Caspian steppe. The first city of Troy dates back to 3000 BCE, right in the middle of the Maykop period, and exatly at the time the first galleys were made.

The Maykop culture was succeeded by the Srubna culture (1600-1200 BCE), then the Colchian culture (1200-600 BCE), which extended into the western Caucasus. Its further expansion to the south of the Caucasus correspond to the first historical mentions of the Proto-Armenian branch of Indo-European languages (around 1200 BCE).

The presence of R1b1b2 in Greece could be attributed to the Dorian invasion (1200 BCE), which correspond to the expansion of the Urnfield culture throughout Europe and Anatolia, and to the destruction of the Near-Eastern civilizations by the Sea Peoples. Greek R1b (including southern Italy) is divided between the Proto-Celtic S116/P312 and the eastern variety (known as ht35) from Anatolia. If the Dorian were ht35, they could be the descendants of the Trojans (seeking revenge for the destruction of their city a few decades earlier), or of the Hittites (or a combination of both). If they were S116/P312, it means that they could have been Proto-Celts from Hallstatt. Of course it can't be ruled out that the Trojans asked their "cousins" from Hallstatt for help to defeat the Myceneans, thus invading as a hybrid R1b faction of S116/P312 and ht35. The S116/P312 element could also be due to the later Roman occupation of Greece.

The Cimmerians were the last recorded to leave the Pontic-Anatolian homeland around 800 BCE, passing through Anatolia before going to Europe. They were probably hybrid R1b-R1a. The Athenians of Classical Greece (510-323 BCE) made a point to re-established the connections with all the Black Sea ports afterwards, as if to confirm their new genealogical tie with the old Dorian/Trojan homeland (or simply because they could, for the first time in history, since most of the R1b civilization had emigrated).

The Central Asian branch

An early group of R1b1b people is thought to have migrated from Caspian Sea region to Central Asia, where it evolved into the R1b1b1 (M73) branch. This variety of R1b occurs almost exclusively in very specific Central Asian populations. The highest percentages were observed among the Uyghurs (20%) of Xinjiang in north-west China, the Hazara people of Afghanistan (32%), and the Bashkirs (55%) of the Abzelilovsky district of Bashkortostan in Russia (border of Kazakhstan).

Central Asian R1b1b1 could correspond to the Tocharian branch of the Indo-Europeans. It is possible that the Tocharians split from the main R1b body as early as 7,000 BCE. Over the centuries some groups of these nomadic tribes ended up around the southern Urals, others in the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang) or in southern Central Asia. Another theory is that a group of early horse riders from the Repin culture (3700-3300 BCE) migrated from the Don-Volga region to the Altai mountain, founding the Afanasevo culture (c. 3600-2400 BCE), then moved south to the Tarim Basin.

Mummies of fair-haired Caucasian people were found in the Tarim Basin, the oldest of which date back to 1800 BCE. The modern inhabitants of the Tarim Basin, the Uyghurs, belong both to this R1b-M73 subclade (about 20%) and to R1a1 (about 30%). This could mean that they had become a hybrid R1b-R1a society by the time they reached the Tarim Basin. But R1a1 could also have arrived independently during the later Indo-Iranian migrations (approx. 2000 BCE), or much later through some nomadic Scytho-Iranian tribes (after 700 BCE).



Back migrations

The earliest known back migration of R1b was from Asia to Africa and took place around 15,000 years ago. A group of R1b1* people moving from the Levant to Egypt, Sudan and spreading in different directions inside Africa to Rwanda, South Africa, Namibia, Angola, Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Guinea-Bissau. The hotspot is Cameroon. R1b1* was observed at a frequency of up to 95% in some tribes of northern Cameroon (like the Kirdi), and about 15% nationwide. It is in all likelihood where the early R1b people first settled, then spread south and east along the coast.
Other back migrations occured from Europe to the Near East and Central Asia during the Antiquity and Middle Ages. R1b-S28 was found in Romania, Turkey and at the border of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. Some of it was surely brought by the Alpine Celts (Hallstatt/La Tène culture), known to have advanced along the Danube, and created the Galatian kingdom in central Anatolia. The rest could just as well be Roman, given that R1b-S28 is the dominant form of R1b in the Italian peninsula. Some have hypothetised that Roman legions went as far as Central Asia or China and never came back, leaving their genetic marker in isolated pockets. See also Were the Romans and the Alpine Celts close cousins ?

A small percentage of Western European R1b subclades were also found among Christian communities in Lebanon. They are most likely descendants of the crusaders.






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Valikhan
сообщение 11.2.2010, 11:55
Сообщение #400


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Там же

Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA)
R1a is thought to have been the dominant haplogroup among the northern and eastern Indo-European speakers who evolved into the Indo-Iranian, Mycenaean Greek, Macedonian, Thracian, Baltic and Slavic branches. The Proto-Indo-Europeans originated in the Yamna culture (3300-2500 BCE), in the Pontic-Caspian steppe between modern Ukraine and south-west Russia. Their expansion is linked to the domestication of horses in the Eurasian steppes, and the invention of the chariot (see R1b above).

The eastern part of the Pontic-Caspian steppes is strongly associated with the Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic branches of Indo-European languages. Based on archeological, linguistic and genetic data, it is possible to say that the pastoralist nomads who lived in the northern Russian steppes and forest-steppes 5,000 years ago carried predominantly R1a paternal lineages.

Nowadays, high frequencies of R1a are found in Poland (56% of the population), Ukraine (50 to 65%), European Russia (45 to 65%), Belarus (45%), Slovakia (40%), Latvia (40%), Lithuania (38%), the Czech Republic (34%), Hungary (32%), Croatia (29%), Norway (28%), Austria (26%), Sweden (24%), north-east Germany (23%) and Romania (22%).

The Germanic branch

The first expansion of R1a took place with the westward propagation of the Corded Ware (or Battle Axe) culture (3200-1800 BCE) from the Yamna homeland. This was the first wave of R1a into Europe, one that is responsible for the presence of this haplogroup in Scandinavia, Germany, and a portion of the R1a in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary or Poland. The high prevalence of R1a in Balto-Slavic countries nowadays is not only due to the Corded Ware expansion, but also to a long succession of later migrations from Russia, the last of which took place from the 5th to the 1th century CE.

The Germanic branch of Indo-European languages probably evolved from a merger of Corded-Ware R1a (Proto-Slavic language) and the later arrival of Italo-Celtic R1b from Central Europe. This is supported by the fact that Germanic people are hybrid R1a-R1b, that these two haplogroups came via separate routes at different times, and also on the linguistics of Proto-Germanic language, which shares similarities with Italic, Celtic and Slavic languages. The Corded Ware R1a people would have mixed with the pre-Germanic I1 aborigines to create the Nordic Bronze Age (1800-500 BCE). R1b presumably reached Scandinavia later as a northward migration from the contemporary Hallstatt culture (1200-500 BCE). The first genuine Germanic tongue has been estimated by linguists to have come into existence around (or after) 500 BCE. This would confirm that it emerged as a blend of Hallstatt Proto-Celtic and the Corded-Ware Proto-Slavic. The uniqueness of some of the Germanic vocabulary points at borrowing from native pre-Indo-European languages. Celtic language itself is known to have borrowed from Afro-Asiatic languages spoken by Near-Eastern immigrants to Central Europe. The fact that present-day Scandinavia is composed of roughly 40% of I1, 20% of R1a and 40% of R1b reinforces the idea that Germanic ethnicity and language had acquired a tri-hybrid character by the Iron Age.

The Baltic branch

The Baltic branch is thought to have evolved from the Fatyanovo culture (3200-2300 BCE), the northeastern extension of the Corded Ware culture. Early Bronze Age R1a nomads from the northern steppes and forest-steppes would have mixed with the indigenous Uralic-speaking inhabitants (N1c1 lineages) of the region. This is supported by a strong presence of both R1a and N1c1 haplogroups from southern Finland to Lithuania and the adjacent part of Russia.

The Slavic branch

The origins of the Slavs goes back to circa 3000 BCE. The Slavic branch differentiated itself when the Corded Ware culture (see Germanic branch above) absorbed the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture (5200-2600 BCE) of western Ukraine and north-eastern Romania, which appears to have been composed primarily of I2a2 lineages descended directly from Paleolithic Europeans, with a small admixture of Near-Eastern immigrants (notably E-V13 and T). Thus emerged the hybrid Globular Amphora culture (3400-2800 BCE) in what is now Ukraine, Belarus and Poland. It is surely during this period that I2a2, E-V13 and T spread (along with R1a) around Poland, Belarus and western Russia, explaining why eastern and northern Slavs (and Lithuanians) have a considerable incidence of haplogroups I2a2 with a bit of E and T. After just a few centuries, this hybridised culture faded away into the dominant Corded Ware culture.

The Corded Ware period was followed by the Trzciniec (1700-1200 BCE), Lusatian (1300-500 BCE), Chernoles (1025-700 BCE) and Milograd (600 BCE-100 CE) cultures in north-east Slavic countries. The last important Slavic migration is thought to have happened in the 6th century CE, from Ukraine to Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, filling the vacuum left by eastern Germanic tribes who invaded the Roman Empire.

Historically, no other part of Europe was invaded a higher number of times by steppe peoples than the Balkans. Chronologically, the first R1a invaders came with the westward expansion of the Corded Ware culture (from about 3200 BCE), then the Mycenaean invasion (1600 BCE), followed by the Thracians (1500 BCE), the Illyrians (around 1200 BCE), the Huns and the Alans (400 CE), the Avars, the Bulgars and the Serbs (all around 600 CE), and the Magyars (900 CE), among others. These peoples originated from different parts of the Eurasian steppes, anywhere between Eastern Europe and Central Asia, which is why such high STR diversity is found within Balkanic R1a nowadays. It is not yet possible to determine the ethnic origin for each variety of R1a, apart from the fact that about any R1a is associated with tribes from Eurasian steppe at one point in history.

The Indo-Iranian branch

Proto-Indo-Iranian speakers, the people who later called themselves 'Aryans' in the Rig Veda and the Avesta, originated in the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (2100-1750 BCE), in the Tobol and Ishim valleys, east of the Ural Mountains. It was founded by pastoralist nomads from the Abashevo culture (2500-1900 BCE), ranging from the upper Don-Volga to the Ural Mountains, and the Poltavka culture (2700-2100 BCE), extending from the lower Don-Volga to the Caspian depression. The Sintashta-Petrovka culture was the first Bronze Age advance of the Indo-Europeans west of the Urals, opening the way to the vast plains and deserts of Central Asia to the metal-rich Altai mountains. The Aryans quickly expanded over all Central Asia, from the shores of the Caspian to southern Siberia and the Tian Shan, through trading, seasonal herd migrations, and looting raids.

Horse-drawn war chariots seem to have been invented by Sintashta people around 2100 BCE, and quickly spread to the mining region of Bactria-Margiana (modern border of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan). Copper had been extracted intensively in the Urals, and the Proto-Indo-Iranians from Sintashta-Petrovka were exporting it in huge quantities to the Middle East. They appear to have been attracted by the natural resources of the Zeravshan valley for a Petrovka copper-mining colony was established in Tugai around 1900 BCE, and tin was extracted soon afterwards at Karnab and Mushiston. Tin was an especially valued resource in the late Bronze Age, when weapons were made of copper-tin alloy, stronger than the more primitive arsenical bronze. In the 1700's BCE, the Indo-Iranians expanded to the lower Amu Darya valley and settled in irrigation farming communities (Tazabagyab culture). By 1600 BCE, the old fortified towns of Margiana-Bactria were abandoned, submerged by the northern steppe migrants. The group of Central Asian cultures under Indo-Iranian influence is known as the Andronovo horizon, and lasted until 800 BCE.

The Indo-Iranian migrations progressed further south across the Hindu Kush. By 1700 BCE, horse-riding pastoralists had penetrated into Balochistan (south-west Pakistan). The Indus valley succumbed circa 1500 BCE, and the northern and central parts of the Indian subcontinent were taken over by 500 BCE. Westward migrations led Old Indic Sanskrit speakers riding war chariots to Assyria, where they became the Mitanni rulers from circa 1500 BCE. The Medes, Parthians and Persians, all Iranian speakers from the Andronovo culture, moved into the Iranian plateau from 800 BCE. Those that stayed in Central Asia are remembered by history as the Scythians, while the Yamna descendants who remained in the Pontic-Caspian steppe became known as the Sarmatians to the ancient Greeks and Romans.

The Indo-Iranian migrations have resulted in high R1a frequencies in southern Central Asia, Iran and the Indian subcontinent. The highest frequency of R1a (about 65%) is reached in a cluster around Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and northern Afghanistan. In India and Pakistan, R1a ranges from 15 to 50% of the population, depending on the region, ethnic group and caste. R1a is generally stronger is the North-West of the subcontinent, and weakest in the Dravidian-speaking South (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh) and from Bengal eastward. Over 70% of the Brahmins (highest caste in Hindusim) belong to R1a1, due to a founder effect.

Maternal lineages in South Asia are, however, overwhelmingly pre-Indo-European. For instance, India has over 75% of "native" mtDNA M and R lineages and 10% of East Asian lineages. In the residual 15% of haplogroups, approximately half are of Middle Eastern origin. Only about 7 or 8% could be of "Russian" (Pontic-Caspian steppe) origin, mostly in the form of haplogroup U2 and W (although the origin of U2 is still debated). European mtDNA lineages are much more common in Central Asia though, and even in Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. This suggests that the Indo-European invasion of India was conducted mostly by men through war, and the first major settlement of women was in northern Pakistan, western India (Punjab to Gujarat) and northern India (Uttar Pradesh), where haplogroups U2 and W are the most common.

The Greek branch

Little is known about the arrival of Proto-Greek speakers from the steppes. The Mycenaean culture commenced circa 1650 BCE and is clearly an imported steppe culture. The close relationship between Mycenaean and Proto-Indo-Iranian languages suggest that they split fairly late, some time between 2500 and 2000 BCE. Archeologically, Mycenaean chariots, spearheads, daggers and other bronze objects show striking similarities with the Seima-Turbino culture (c. 1900-1600 BCE) of the northern Russian forest-steppes, known for the great mobility of its nomadic warriors (Seima-Turbino sites were found as far away as Mongolia). It is therefore likely that the Mycenaean descended from Russia to Greece between 1900 and 1650 BCE, where they intermingled with the locals to create a new unique Greek culture.




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